History of Expressionism
Manifestoes punctuate the annals of expressionism, starting with the founding manifesto associated with Künstlergruppe “Brücke, ” which can be treated in Kirchner 1905. A lot of these are available in the Anthologies. Individually posted or book-length writings are listed here. While not totally separated from this, these texts establish less a theory of artistic production, independently covered within the area concept and Criticism, than statements of roles vis-à-vis the art establishment, past art movements, or contemporary community and its own values. Katalog zur Ausstellung der K. G. “Brücke”1910 (Arnold 1988) faithfully reproduces the catalogue the Brücke’s final convention in Dresden in 1910, originally consisting of woodcuts and texts because of the musicians and artists. Vinnen 1911 condemns recent developments in German art in a collection of texts these days usually interpreted as prefiguring the Nazi Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) arguments of this 1930s. Im Kampf um die Kunst: Die Antwort auf den “Protest deutscher Künstler” responds to Vinnen’s area with texts compiled by expressionist artists, museum directors, and experts, including Wilhelm Worringer. originally was posted to coincide using the very first Blaue Reiter convention in Munich in 1912, and, in its collection, it presents expressionism’s aim to advance the synthesis of all arts. An alle Künstler! (Becker, et al. 1919) is ruled because of the utopian hopes of German designers for art, art education, and society after World War I.
Arnold, Galerie (Dresden). “Katalog zur Ausstellung der K. G. ‘Brücke’ 1910.” In Kataloge epochenmachender Kunstausstellungen in Deutschland, 1910–1962. Edited by Eberhard Roters. Cologne: Walther König, 1988.
Facsimile of this woodcut catalogue with introduction for the last Brücke event in Dresden, providing a quick subjective history of the team.
Becker, Robert B., Max Pechstein, César Klein, et al. An alle Künstler! Berlin: Kunstanstalt Willi Simon, 1919.
Collection of utopian manifestoes and programmatic statements by expressionist performers and writers calling for an innovative transformation of society through art following German November Revolution of 1918. Contributors included the poet Johannes R. Becher, the dramatist Walter Hasenclever, the publisher and radical politician Kurt Eisner, together with musicians Lyonel Feininger, César Klein, Ludwig Meidner, Max Pechstein, Hans Richter-Berlin, Milly Steger, and Georg Tappert. The manifestoes by Eisner, Meidner, and Pechstein come in Washton Long 1992 (reported under Anthologies).
I am Kampf um die Kunst: Die Antwort auf den “Protest deutscher Künstler.” Munich: R. Piper, 1911.
The “response” to Vinnen’s 1911 tract against French influence, with statements by forty-eight artists and twenty-seven collectors, experts, and museum administrators compiled by Alfred Walter Heymel and Franz Marc.
Kandinsky, Wassily (Vasily), and Franz Marc, eds. The Blaue Reiter Almanac. Documents of Modern Art. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 2005.
Klaus Lankheit’s “new documentary edition” of Almanac (Munich 1965), converted right here, adds a history and documents linked to it, plus a bibliography by Bernard Karpel (in addition published in 1974 [nyc: Viking]). Has illustrations of modern and medieval European art, German and Russian people art, and children’s drawings and non-Western artworks. Includes fundamental essays by Wassily (Vasily) Kandinsky, August Macke, Franz Marc, and Arnold Schoenberg and Kandinsky’s perform The Yellow Sound and music results by Arnold Schoenberg, Anton von Webern, and Alban Berg.
Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig. Künstlergruppe Brücke. Dresden, Germany: The Artist, 1905.
The woodcut founding manifesto of this Dresden performers’ group Brücke (Bridge) frequently cited to mark the origins of Expressionism. Illustrated and quoted in almost all records of Expressionism. Slightly different translations can be obtained in Miesel 1970 and Washton Long 1992 (both cited under Anthologies) plus in Heller 2009, reported under Brücke in Dresden and Berlin, 1905–1913).
Vinnen, Carl, ed. Protest deutscher Künstler. Jena, Germany: E. Diederich, 1911.
a notoriously chauvinistic number of statements by 120 German performers and experts that objected to the influence on German music artists of contemporary non-German, notably French, art and its particular influx into German galleries.